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■ j|^ Agriculture 



Canada 

Research Direction generale 
Branch de la recherche 

Contribution 1983- 23E 



AGRICUnrtTRE CANADA 
CODE 18/04/84 NO. 

riBRARY/BlBLICTHEQUE OTTAWA K1A OC5 




Vascular plants poisonous 
to livestock in Canada 

1. A preliminary inventory 




c SS-2? 



2/ 



Canada 



The map on the cover has dots 
representing Agriculture Canada 
research establishments. 



Vascular plants poisonous 
to livestock in Canada 

1. A preliminary inventory 



GERALD A. MULLIGAN 

DEREK B. MUNRO 

Biosystematics Research Institute 
Ottawa, Ontario 
K1A 0C6 



Research Branch 
Agriculture Canada 
1983 



Copies of this publication are available from: 
Biosystematics Research Institute 
Research Branch, Agriculture Canada 
Ottawa, Ontario 
K1A 0C6 

Produced by Research Program Service 

©Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1983 



- m - 

CONTENTS 

Summary / iv 

Resume / iv 

Introduction / 1 

Equisetaceae / 2 

Polypodiaceae / 3 

Taxaceae / 3 

Pinaceae / 3 

Juncaginaceae / 3 

Liliaceae / 4 

Iridaceae / 4 

Fagaceae / 5 

Polygonaceae / 5 

Chenopodiaceae / 5 

Amaranthaceae / 6 

Phytolaccaceae / 6 

Caryophyllaceae / 7 

Ranunculaceae / 7 

Berberidaceae / 7 

Fumariaceae / 7 

Cruciferae / 8 

Rosaceae / 9 

Leguminosae / 9 

Euphorbiaceae / 10 

Guttiferae / 11 

Umbel 1 if erae / 1 1 

Ericaceae / 12 

Asclepiadaceae / 12 

Boraginaceae / 13 

Labiatae / 13 

Solanaceae / 13 

Scrophulariaceae / 14 

Compositae / 14 

Other types of plants causing poisoning or injury in nature / 16 

Literature cited / 17 



- IV - 

SUMMARY 

This publication is Part 1 of a series on native, naturalized, and 
cultivated vascular plants that cause poisoning or mechanical injury to 
livestock, other animals, and people in Canada. The series encompasses 
the native or naturalized vascular plants, occurring in Canada, that are 
documented to have caused sickness or death to livestock in North America 
north of Mexico. Part 1 constitutes a preliminary inventory that is 
intended for distribution to various experts for suggestions on 
supplementary additions and corrections. For each of the poisonous plants 
included in this treatment, we give the scientific and common names, 
specify the occurrence in Canada, provide notes on the animals affected, 
and list pertinent references documenting poisoning. The supplementary 
information obtained from readers will be utilized in a subsequent 
treatment that is to include illustrations and other identification aids. 

RESUME 

La pre'sente publication est la premiere partie d'une seYie sur les plantes 
vasculaires indigenes, acclimatees ou cultive'es du Canada qui provoquent 
des intoxications ou des blessures chez les animaux domestiques ou 
sauvages et chez 1 ' homme. La seYie couvre les plantes vasculaires 
indigenes ou natural ise'es, qui croissent au Canada et auxquelles on a 
attri bue des cas de maladie ou de mort du be*tail dans une region de 
1'AmeYique du Nord, au nord du Mexique. La premiere partie consiste en un 
inventaire provisoire qui sera distribue* aux divers experts et que ceux-ci 
compl§teront ou corrigeront afin d'en ame'liorer la qualite. Chaque plante 
est designee par ses noms scientifique et populaires, et les 
renseignements qui s'y rapportent comprennent sa distribution au Canada, 
les especes qu'elle affecte et la liste des re'feVences traitant des cas 
d'intoxication. Les renseignements que les lecteurs nous feront parvenir 
seront utilises dans une publication subse*quente qui comprendra des 
illustrations et d'autres outils d'identif ication. 



- 1 - 

INTRODUCTION 



SCOPE 



There is much confusion as to which plants cause poisoning or mechanical 
injury to livestock, other animals, and people in Canada. Many general 
publications dealing with poisonous plants perpetuate erroneous 
information, do not cite source data, or do not differentiate between 
plants causing serious poisoning problems and those responsible for minor 
or dubious poisonings. The most comprehensive and accurate sources of 
information on plant poisoning in North America are Muenscher (1951), 
Kingsbury (1964), Kinghorn (1977), and Keeler et al . (1978). In addition, 
the following publications contribute most significantly to the knowledge 
of poisonous plants in a Canadian context: Fyles (1920), Thomson and 
Sifton (1922), Bruce (1927), Campbell et al. (1954, 1956), Montgomery et 
al. (1955), McLean and Nicholson (1958), and Johnston et al . (1965). 

Plant-induced poisoning occurs when one or more chemicals present in a 
plant produce a negative physiological response in an individual animal or 
species of animal . 

The occurrence of poisoning by a particular plant species often varies. 
Some species of plants are only toxic at certain stages of their life 
cycle whereas others are most toxic during only one part of the growing 
season. In some cases the entire plant is toxic but in others only the 
leaves, seeds, or seedlings contain toxic ingredients. Some plants cause 
poisoning only when toxic elements, such as selenium, occur in the soil. 
Other plants may lose their toxins upon drying. Some toxins are so potent 
that a single mouthful can rapidly cause death. Other toxins are 
cumulative and must be consumed over a long period. Many poisonous plants 
are normally unpalatable and are only eaten in times of drought or in the 
early spring when other forages are scarce. 

The physiology of individual animals or species of animal also determines 
the degree of plant toxicity. Some plants that are toxic to certain 
species of animals provide valuable forage to other livestock. Within the 
same species, some animals are highly allergic to a given plant whereas 
others are immune or only mildly susceptible to it. 

Several broad classes of chemicals are responsible for the toxic reactions 
in animals caused by many plants. Organic chemicals include alkaloids, 
glucosides, oxalic acid, and resinoids. In addition, inorganic compounds 
such as molybdenum, nitrates, and selenium, taken up from the soil by some 
plants, can accumulate in plant tissue to toxic levels. Other plants 
contain substances that can cause photosensitization in livestock. 

Plant poisons can cause reductions in vigor, weight gain, and fertility 
and, as well, can induce abortions and cause birth defects. 



- 2 - 

Problems exist for veterinarians who may have to diagnose and treat cases 
of plant-induced poisoning. The initial problem is recognizing that an 
animal's symptoms are caused by a plant toxin. Another complication 
involves acquiring a positive identification of the plant. In addition, 
wel 1 -documented literature is not always available on previous cases of 
poisoning and on recommended treatments. Farmers and veterinarians can 
obtain information on livestock poisoning and plant identifications from 
federal and provincial agencies and universities. 

When collecting plant material for identification purposes, be sure to 
collect fresh leaves, branches, flowers, and fruits. Dry the plant 
material in a press or put the plants in newspaper and press under books 
or bricks in a warm dry place. Provide information on the habitat of the 
plants, the location and the date of the collection, symptoms of 
poisoning, and any other data that seem relevant. 

FORMAT 

Plants are listed in taxonomic order by family, following the system of 
Engler and Prantl (1889-1909). Genera within each family, as well as 
species under each genus, are listed alphabetically by scientific latin 
names. 

Common English and French names are taken, whenever possible, from Common 
and botanical names of weeds in Canada / Noms populaires et scientifique 
des plantes nuisibles du Canada (Alex et al. 1980) . 

The general distributions follow Boivin (1966, 1967), except in a few 
cases where additional distributions are included from more recent 
information. When a location abbreviation is bounded by parentheses, the 
occurrence of the plant in that area has not been confirmed. 

EQUISETACEAE (HORSETAIL FAMILY) 

EQUISETUM (HORSETAILS) 

Equisetum arvense L. (field horsetail, prele des champs) 

Distribution: Keewatin and MacKenzi e dists. , Y.T., Nf Id. , N.S., P.E.I., 
N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask. , Alta. , B.C. 

Equisetum palustre L. (marsh horsetail, prele des marais) 

Distribution: MacKenzie dist. , Y.T. , Nfld., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., 

Alta., B.C. 
Animals affected: Sickness and death occur in horses and sheep, rarely in 

cattle. 
References: Rich and Jones (1902), Gussow (1912), Bruce (1927), McLean and 

Nicholson (1958), Cody and Wagner (1981). 



- 3 - 

POLYPODIACEAE (FERN FAMILY) 

Qnoclea sensibi lis L. (sensitive fern, onocle'e sensible) 

Distribution: Nfld., N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., Man. 

Animals affected: Sickness and the occasional death occurred in horses, 

especially the very old, in one set of experiments and related field 

studies. 
Reference: Waller et al. (1944). 

Pteri dium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn (bracken; fougere d'aigle, grande fougere de 
TOuest) 

Distribution: Nfld., N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Alta., B.C. 

Animals affected: Sickness and death occur in cattle, horses, sheep, and 
pigs. 

References: Hadwen (1917), Hadwen and Bruce (1933), Groh (1941), Weswig et 
al. (1946), Langham (1957), Wagnon (1959), Rosenberger (1971), Cody 
and Crompton (1975), Evans (1976), Kelleway and Geovjian (1978). 

TAXACEAE (YEW FAMILY) 

Taxus canadensis Marsh. (Canada yew, if du Canada) 

Distribution: Nfld., N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., Man. 

Animals affected: One case of poisoning of cattle has been reported. 

Reference: Bruce (1927). 

PINACEAE (PINE FAMILY) 

Pinus ponderosa Dougl. (ponderosa pine, pin ponderosa) 

Distribution: B.C. 

Animals affected: Abortion or birth of weak calves occurs. 
References: MacDonald (1952a), Allen and Kitts (1961), Call and James 
(1978). 

JUNCAGINACEAE (ARROW-GRASS FAMILY) 

TRIGLOCHIN (ARROW- GRASSES) 

Tri glochi n mari tima L. (seaside arrow-grass, troscart maritime) 

Distribution: Keewatin and MacKenzi e dists. , Y.T., Nfld., N.S., P.E.I., 

N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask. , Alta., B.C. 
Animals affected: Sickness and death have occurred in cattle and sheep. 



- 4 - 

References: Fleming (1920), Fleming et al. (1920b), Marsh et al. (1929), 
Beath et al. (1933), Clawson and Moran (1937). 

Triglochin palustris L. (marsh arrow-grass, troscart des marais) 

Distribution: Keewatin and MacKenzie dists. , Y.T., Nf Id. , N.S., P.E.I., 

N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask. , Alt a., B.C. 
Animals affected: No firm record of poisoning by this species was found 

in the literature. 
Reference: McLean and Nicholson (1958). 

LILIACEAE (LILY FAMILY) 

Veratrum viride Ait, (false hellebore, varaire vert) 

Distribution: Y.T., Nf Id. , N.B., Que., Alta., B.C. 

Animals affected: Sickness and death has been reported in sheep, 

chickens, and cattle. 
References: Chesnut (1898), Chesnut and Wilcox (1901), Fleming and 

Schappelle (1918), Bruce (1927), Reynard and Norton (1942). 

ZYGADENUS (CAMAS) 

Zygadenus elegans Pursh (white camas, zigadene elegant) 

Distribution: MacKenzie dist. , Y.T., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., 
B.C. 

Zygadenus gramineus Rydb. (death camas, zigadene v£ne"neux) 

Distribution: southern Sask., southern Alta., southern B.C. 

Animals affected: Sickness and death occur in sheep, and occasionally in 

cattle and horses. 
References: Chesnut and Wilcox (1901), Heyl et al. (1912), Marsh et al. 

1915), Fleming (1920), Fleming et al. (1921), Marsh and Clawson 

1922, 1924), McLean and Nicholson (1958). 

IRIDACEAE (IRIS FAMILY) 

Iris versicolor L. (blue flag iris, clajeux) 

Distribution: Keewatin dist., Nfld., N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., Man. 
Animals affected: Poisoning and death of calves has been reported. 
Reference: Bruce (1927). 



- 5 - 

FAGACEAE (BEECH FAMILY) 

QUERCUS (OAKS) 

Quercus rubra L. (red oak, chene rouge) 

Distribution: N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont. 

Quercus velutina Lam. (black oak) 

Distribution: southern Ont. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death of cattle, sheep, and occasionally 

horses occur. Problems tend to occur where oaks have been felled into 

pastures. 
References: Pammel (1917a_), Duncan (1961). 

POLYGONACEAE (BUCKWHEAT FAMILY) 

Rumex venosus Pursh (veined dock, rumex veine) 

Distribution: southern Man., Sask., Alta. 

Animals affected: Sickness and death of cattle occur. 

Reference: Dickie et al . (1978). 

CHENOPODIACEAE (G00SEF00T FAMILY) 

Bassia hyssopifolia (Pall.) Ktze. (five-hooked bassia, bassia a feuilles 
d ' hysope ) 

Distribution: southwestern Sask., Alta., B.C. 
Animals affected: Poisoning and death of sheep occur. 
Reference: James et al. (1976). 

Chenopodium album L. (lamb's-quarters, chenopode blanc) 

Distribution: MacKenzie dist., Y.T., Nf Id., N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., 

Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C. 
Animals affected: Poisoning and death occur in cattle, horses, and pigs. 
References: Gilbert et al . (1946), Whitehead and Moxon (1952), Case 

(1957), Buck et al. (1966), Bassett and Crompton (1978). 

Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. (kochia) 

Distribution: N.S., southern Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C. 
Animals affected: Photosensitization of cattle occurs, resulting in 
poisoning and death. 



- 6 - 

Reference: Galitzer and Oehme (1978). 

Sarcobatus vermiculatus (Hook.) Torr. (greasewood) 

Distribution: southwestern Sask., southern Alta., southeastern B.C. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death occur in sheep. 

References: Chesnut and Wilcox (1901), Couch (1922), Fleming et al. 

(1928), Marsh (1929a), Wilson (1934), Sampson and Malmsten (1935), 

Hershey (1945). 

Suckleya suckleyana (Torr.) Rydb. (poison suckleya) 

Distribution: Sask., southeastern Alta. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death of cattle has been reported. 

Reference: Hershey (1945). 

AMARANTHACEAE (AMARANTH FAMILY) 

AMARANTHUS (PIGWEEDS) 

Amaranth us blitoides S. Wats ( =A. graecizans L.) (prostrate pigweed, 
amarante fausse-blite) 

Distribution: southwestern Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C. 

Amaranthus hybridus L. (smooth pigweed, amarante hybrid) 

Distribution: southern Ont. 

Amaranthus retroflexus L. (redroot pigweed, amarante a racine rouge) 

Distribution: MacKenzie dist. , N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., 

Sask. , Alta. , B.C. 
Animals affected: Poisoning and death of pigs and cattle by Amaranthus 

spp. occur. 
References: The following references deal with Amaranthus spp.; Gilbert et 

al. (1946), Whitehead and Moxon (1952), Buck et al. (1966), Osweiler 

et al. (1969), Stuart et al. (1975), Hogg and Hibbs (1976), Weaver and 

McWilliams (1980). 

PHYTOLACCACEAE (POKEWEED FAMILY) 

Phytolacca americana L. (pokeweed, phytolaque d'AmeYique) 

Distribution: southwestern Que., southwestern Ont. 
Animals affected: Poisoning and death occur in pigs. 
References: Patterson (1929), Hansen (1930). 



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CARYOPHYLLACEAE (PINK FAMILY) 

Agrostemma githago L. (purple cockle, nielle) 

Distribution: N.S., P.E.I., (N.B.), 9 ue * » Ont., Man., Sask. , B.C. 
Animals affected: Seeds cause poisoning and death in chickens. 
References: Quigley and Waite (1931), Heuser and Schumacher (1942). 

RANUNCULACEAE (CROWFOOT FAMILY) 

DELPHINIUM (LARKSPURS) 

Delphinium bicolor Nutt. (low larkspur, pied d'alouette bicolore) 

Distribution: southwestern Sask., Alta. , B.C. 

Delphinium glaucum S. Wats. ( =D. brownii Rydb. ) (tall larkspur, pied 
d'alouette glauque) 

Distribution: MacKenzie dist., Y.T., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C. 

Delphinium menziesii DC. 

Distribution: B.C. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death of cattle have been reported. 

Horses and sheep have been poisoned experimentally. 
References: Wilcox (1897), Chesnut and Wilcox (1901), Marsh et al. 

(1923a), Marsh (1929a), McLean and Nicholson (1958). 

BERBERIDACEAE (BARBERRY FAMILY) 

Podophyllum peltatum L. (May-apple, podophylle pelte*) 

Distribution: N.S., southwestern Que., southern Ont. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death occur in pigs and poisoning of 

cattle. 
References: Mcintosh (1928), Hansen (1930). 

FUMARIACEAE (FUMITORY FAMILY) 

PI CENTRA (BLEEDINGHEARTS) 

Pi centra canadensis (Goldie) Walp. (squirrel-corn, dicentre du Canada) 

Distribution: southwestern Que., southern Ont. 
Animals affected: Poisoning and death occur in cattle. 



- 8 - 

Reference: Black et al. (1923). 

Pi centra cucullari a (L.) Bernh. (Dutchman's -breeches, dicentre a capuchon) 

Distribution: N.S., N.B., Que., Ont. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death occur in cattle. 

References: Black et al. (1923), Hansen (1930). 

Dicentra formosa (Andr.) Walp. (western bleedingheart) 

Distribution: southwestern B.C. 

Animals affected: This species has been implicated experimentally in the 

poisoning and death of cattle. 
Reference: Black et al. (1930). 

CRUCIFERAE (MUSTARD FAMILY) 
Barbarea vulgari s R. Br. (yellow rocket, barbare'e vulgaire) 

Distribution: MacKenzie dist. , Y.T., Nfld., N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., 

Ont., Man., Sask. , Alta. , B.C. 
Animals affected: One unusual case of poisoning in a horse has been 

reported. 
Reference: Hansen (1930). 

Descurainia pinnata (Walt.) Britt. var. brachycarpa (Richard.) Fern, 
(green tansy mustard, moutarde tanaisie verte) 

Distribution: MacKenzie dist., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C. 
Animals affected: Poisoning and death occur in cattle when foraging 

almost exclusively on green tansy mustard. 
Reference: Hershey (1945). 

Si nap is arvensis L. ( =Brassica kaber (DC.) Wheeler var. pinnatifida 
(Stokes) Wheeler) (wild mustard, moutarde des champs) 

Distribution: MacKenzie dist., Y.T. , Nfld., N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., 

Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C. 
Animals affected: Occasional poisoning and death of cattle and swine 

occur. 
References: Thomson and Sifton (1922), Gwatkin and Moynihan (1943), 

Mulligan and Bailey (1975). 



- 9 - 
ROSACEAE (ROSE FAMILY) 
PRUNUS (CHERRIES) 

Prunus serotina Ehrh. (black cherry, cerisier tardif) 
Distribution: N.S., N.B., Que., Ont. 
Prunus virginiana L. (red choke cherry, cerisier de Virginie) 

Distribution: MacKenzie dist. , Nfld., N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., 

Man. , Sask. , Alta. , B.C. 
Animals affected: Poisoning and death occur in livestock. 
References: Chesnut (1898), Morse and Howard (1898), Fleming et al. 

(1926), Fleming and Dill (1928), Reynard and Norton (1942), Hershey 
1945), Beath et al. (1953), McLean and Nicholson (1958), Conn 

(1978), Mulligan and Munro (1981a). 

LEGUMINOSAE (BEAN FAMILY) 

ASTRAGALUS (MILK-VETCHES) 

Astragalus bisulcatus (Hook.) Gray (two-grooved milk-vetch, astragale 
fonduj 

Distribution: Man., Sask., Alta. 

Astragalus lentiginosus Dougl. 

Distribution: southcentral B.C. 

Astragalus miser Dougl. ex Hook, (timber milk-vetch, astragale prostre') 

Distribution: southwestern Alta., southeastern B.C. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death have been reported in horses, 
cattle, and sheep. 

References: It is difficult to determine the species involved in 
published works because of confusions in scientific names. The 
following references deal with Astragalus spp. Beath and Lehnert 
(1917), Bruce (1927), Beath et al. (1932), Trelease and Martin (1936), 
MacDonald (1952b), McLean and Nicholson (1958), James et al. (1968), 
Van Kampen and James (1969), Williams and James (1978). 

LUPIN US (LUPINES) 

Lupinus argenteus Pursh (silvery lupine, lupin argents) 

Distribution: Man., Sask., Alta., B.C. 



- 10 - 

Lupinus pusillus Pursh (small lupine) 
Distribution: southwestern Sask. , southern Alta. 
Lupinus sericeus Pursh (silky lupine, lupin soyeux) 

Distribution: Y.T., Alta., B.C. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death has been reported in sheep, cattle, 
horses, and pigs; also reported has been experimental evidence of 
poisoning. The toxicity of these plants is variable. Lupines are 
considered valuable range forage in some areas of North America. 

References: Marsh et al. (1916), Beath (1920, 1925), Couch (1926a), Beath 
et al. (1953), McLean and Nicholson (1958), Shupe et al. (1967), 
Keeler (1973). 

0XYTR0PIS (LOCOhEEDS) 

Oxytropis lambertii Pursh (purple locoweed) 

Distribution: southern Man., southeastern Sask. 

Oxytropis sericea Nutt. 

Distribution: Y.T., (Man.), Sask., Alta., B.C. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death of cattle, horses, and sheep occur. 
References: Marsh (1919), James et al. (1968), Van Kampen and James 
(1969). 

Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust, robinier faux-acacia) 

Distribution: N.S., (P.E.I.) , Que., Ont., B.C. 

Animals affected: Poisoning occurs in horses, cattle, and chickens. 
References: Gardiner (1903), Waldron (1908), Barnes (1921), Hansen 
(1924a, 1924b), Bruce (1927), Hansen (1930). 

Vicia villosa Roth (hairy vetch, vesce velue) 

Distribution: N.S., Que., Ont., Man., B.C. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death in cattle have been reported. 

References: Claughton and Claughton (1954), Panciera (1978). 

EUPHORBIACEAE (SPURGE FAMILY) 
EUPHORBIA (SPURGES) 

Euphorbia cyparissias L. (cypress spurge, euphorbe cypres) 
Distribution: Nfld., N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., B.C. 



- 11 - 

Euphorbia esula L. (leafy spurge, euphorbe e'sule) 

Distribution: N.S., P.E.I., Que., Ont., Man., Sask. , Alta. , B.C. 

Animals affected: Photosensitization occurs in cattle, horses, and sheep, 

causing poisoning and death. 
References: Muenscher (1948), Case (1954, 1957), Johnston and Peake 

(1960). 

GUTTIFERAE (ST. JOHN'S-WORT FAMILY) 

Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's-wort, millepertuis perfore*) 

Distribution: Nf Id. , N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., B.C. 

Animals affected: Photosensitization occurs in cattle, sheep, horses, and 

rabbits, causing poisoning and death. 
References: Hansen (1928b), Marsh and Clawson (1930a), Sampson and Parker 

(1930), Gillett and Robson (1981). 

UMBELLIFERAE (PARSLEY FAMILY) 

CI CUT A (WATER-HEMLOCKS) 

Cicuta dougjasii (DC.) Coult. & Rose (western water-hemlock, cicutaire 
pourpre) 

Distribution: B.C. 

Cicuta maculata L. (spotted water-hemlock, carotte a Moreau) 

Distribution: MacKenzie dist. , Y.T., N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., 
Man. , Sask. , Alta. , B.C. 

Cicuta virosa L. (northern water-hemlock, cicutaire du Nord) 

Distribution: MacKenzie dist. , Y.T., northern Que., Ont., Man., Sask., 
Alta. , B.C. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death occur in all classes of livestock. 

References: Chesnut (1898), Fleming et al. (1920c), Hansen (1928c), 

Skidmore (1933), Gress (1935), McLean and Nicholson (1958), Tucker et 
al. (1964), Mulligan (1980), Mulligan and Munro (1981b). 

Conium maculatum L. (poison hemlock, cigue macule'e) 

Distribution: N.S. , Que., Ont., Sask., B.C. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death occur in all classes of livestock. 
References: Chesnut (1898), Pammel (1919), Anonymous (1951), Keeler 
(1974). 



- 12 - 
ERICACEAE (HEATH FAMILY) 
KALMIA (LAURELS) 

Kalmia angustifolia L. (sheep-laurel, kalmia a feuilles e'troites) 
Distribution: Nf Id. , N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont. 
Kalmia polifolia Wang, (bog-laurel, kalmia a feuilles d'andromede) 

Distribution: Keewatin and MacKenzie dists. , Y.T., Nf Id. , N.S., P.E.I., 

N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask. , Alta. , B.C. 
Animals affected: Poisoning and death occur in cattle, sheep, goats, and 

horses. 
References: Marsh and Clawson (1930b), Clawson (1933a), Sampson and 

Malmsten (1935), Waud (1940), Pritchard (1956). 

Menziesia ferruginea Sm. var. glabella (Grey) Peck (western minniebush) 

Distribution: Alta., B.C. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death of sheep have been reported. 

References: Marsh (1914, 1929a). 

RHODODENDRON (RHODODENDRONS) 

Rhododendron albiflorum Hook, (white rose-bay) 

Distribution: western Alta., B.C. 

Rhododendron macrophyllum D. Don ex G. Don (California rose-bay) 

Distribution: southwestern B.C. 

Animals affected: Some losses of livestock have been reported. 

References: Marsh (1929a), Gilfillan and Otsuki (1938). 

ASCLEPIADACEAE (MILKWEED FAMILY) 

ASCLEPIAS (MILKWEEDS) 

Asclepias speciosa Torr. (showy milkweed, belle ascle"piade) 

Distribution: southern Man., Sask., Alta., B.C. 
Reference: Fleming et al. (1920a). 

Asclepias syriaca L. (common milkweed, ascle'piade de Syrie) 

Distribution: N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., southern Man. 
Reference: Reynard and Norton (1942). 



- 13 - 

Asclepias vertici llata L. (eastern whorled milkweed, ascle'piade 
vertici I \€e) 

Distribution: southwestern Ont., Man., southeastern Sask. 

Animals affected: Some poisoning and death of sheep have occurred but 

most of the deaths were produced experimentally. Livestock in general 

avoid eating milkweeds. 
References: Marsh and Clawson (1921), Clark (1979). 

BORAGINACEAE (BORAGE FAMILY) 

Amsinkia intermedia Fisch & Mey. (=A. menziesii (Lehm. ) Nels. & Macbr. ) 
(fiddleneck) 

Distribution: Y.T., Man., Sask., Alta. , B.C. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death of cattle, horses, and pigs occur. 
References: Kalkus et al. (1925), McCulloch (1940), Woolsey et al. 
(1952), Kennedy (1957). 

LABIATAE (MINT FAMILY) 

Glechoma hederacea L. (ground-ivy, lierre terrestre) 

Distribution: Nf Id. , N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., 

B.C. 
Animals affected: One case of poisoning of two horses has been reported. 
Reference: Fyles (1920). 

SOLANACEAE (NIGHTSHADE FAMILY) 

Datura stramonium L. (jimsonweed, stramoine commune) 

Distribution: N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., Sask., Alta. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death occur in cattle, horses, pigs, 

chickens, and mules. 
References: Harshberger (1920), King (1923), Hansen (1924c, 1927), 

Reynard and Norton (1942), Case (1955), Leipold et al. (1973). 

SOLANUM (NIGHTSHADES) 

Solanum dulcamara L. (climbing nightshade, morelle douce-amere) 

Distribution: Nfld., N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., 

(Alta.), B.C. 
Animals affected: Poisoning of sheep and cattle has occurred. 
Reference: Harshberger (1920). 



- 14 - 
Solanum nigrum L. (black nightshade, morel le noire) 

Distribution: (Nfld.), N.S., (P.E.I.), N -B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask. , 

Alt a., B.C. 
Animals affected: Poisoning and death have occurred in cattle, sheep, 

pigs, goats, chickens, and ducks. 
References: Hansen (1927), Casselberry (1939), Hubbs (1947), Ogg et al. 

1981. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE (FIGWORT FAMILY) 

Digitalis purpurea L. (foxglove, digitale pourpre) 

Distribution: Nfld., N.S., Ont., B.C. 

Animals affected: Poisoning of pigs and cattle have occurred, but only 

one report exists of poisoning of livestock in North America. 
Reference: Bruce (1927). 

COMPOSITAE (COMPOSITE FAMILY) 

Centaurea sol stiti al i s L. (yellow star-thistle, centaure'e du solstice) 

Distribution: southern Ont., Man., Sask. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death of horses have been reported. 

References: Cordy (1954), Mettler and Stern (1963). 

Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pall.) Britt. (stinking rabbitbrush, bigelovie 
puantej 

Distribution: Sask., Alta. , B.C. 

Animals affected: Livestock poisoning in California has been reported. 

Reference: Sampson and Malmsten (1935). 

Eupatori urn rugosum Houtt. (white snakeroot, eupatoire rugueuse) 

Distribution: central N.S., N.B., Que., Ont. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death occur in cattle, horses, sheep, and 

goats. 
References: Moseley (1906), Jordan and Harris (1909), Wolf et al. (1918), 

Hansen (1924c, 1924d) , Graham and Boughton (1925), Couch (1926b, 1927, 

1928), Hansen (1928a, 1928d), Marsh (1929b), Couch (1933), Moseley 

(1941), Doyle and Walkley "["1949). 



- 15 - 

HELENIUM (SNEEZEWEEDS) 

Helenium autumnale L. (sneezeweed, hene"nie automnale) 

Distribution: southern MacKenzie dist., southwestern Que., Ont., Man., 
Sask. , Alta. , B.C. 

Helenium flexuosum Raf. (= H. nudiflorum Nutt.) 

Distribution: Que., Ont. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death occur in cattle, sheep, horses, and 

mules. 
References: Phares (1889), Pammel (1917b), Hansen (1924b). 

Hymenoxys richardsonii (Hook.) Cockerel 1 (Colorado rubberweed) 

Distribution: southern Sask., southern Alta. 

Animals affected: Poisoning and death of sheep have been reported. 

References: Marsh (1929a), Parker (1936), Aanes (1961). 

Lactuca scariola L. (prickly lettuce, laitue scariole) 

Distribution: N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C. 
Animals affected: Occasional poisoning of cattle occurs. 
Reference: Beath et al. (1953). 

Rudbeckia 1 acini ata L. (cut-leaved conef lower, rudbeckie laciniee) 

Distribution: N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., southern Man. 
Animals affected: Poisoning and death of pigs, sheep, and horses occur. 
References: Anonymous (1874), Chesnut and Wilcox (1901), Pammel (1928), 
Skidmore and Peterson (1932). 

SENECIO (GROUNDSELS) 

Senecio integerrimus Nutt. (entire-leaved groundsel) 

Distribution: MacKenzie dist. , Y.T., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C. 

Senecio jacobaea L. (tansy ragwort, seYiecon jacobe"e) 

Distribution: Nf Id. , N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., B.C. 
Animals affected: Poisoning and death of cattle and horses have been 
reported. Sheep have been poisoned during experimental feedings. 
References: Pethick (1921), Clawson (1933b). 

Solidago mollis Bartl. (velvety goldenrod, verge d'or veloute'e) 
Distribution: southern Man., Sask., Alta. 



- 16 - 

Animals affected: Occasional livestock losses have been reported, as well 

as the experimental poisoning of sheep. 
Reference: Beath et al. (1953). 

Xanthium strumarium L. (cocklebur, lampourde glouteron) 

Distribution: N.S., P.E.I., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask. , Alta. , B.C. 
Animals affected: Poisoning and death of pigs is most common. Poisoning 

of other livestock is uncommon. All species of Xanthium should be 

considered poisonous. 
References: Marsh et al. (1923b, 1924), Hansen (1925, 1928e), Forrest 

(1938), Reynard and Norton T1942), Love and Dansereau (T959) . 

OTHER TYPES OF PLANTS CAUSING POISONING OR INJURY IN NATURE 

PLANTS CAUSING MECHANICAL INJURY 

Several plants are capable of causing mechanical injury to 
livestock. This injury is often associated with barbs and grass awns that 
become lodged in the nose, eye, or mouth and cause disorientation or 
prevent the animal from eating. Grasses such as foxtail barley ( Hordeum 
jubatum L.), yellow foxtail ( Setari a glauca (L.) Beauv.), and porcupine 
grass ( Stipa spartea Trin. var. curfiseta Hitchc.) have all caused 
mechanical injury (Hansen 1924e, Kingsbury 1964). 

ALGAE 

Some members of the blue green algae (Division Cyanophyta) have caused 
poisoning in freshwater in parts of the United States and Canada. 
Occasional extensive losses of livestock have been reported after 
ingestion of water containing concentrations of algae. Cattle, sheep, 
horses, swine, and domestic fowl have all been killed. Kingsbury (1964) 
discusses this problem in detail. 

PLANT FOOD CONTAINING MYCOTOXINS 

Certain fungi produce toxic metabolic products under certain 
environmental conditions. The fungi occur on many food commodities eaten 
by livestock, and episodes of acute mycotoxicoses resulting in death of 
large numbers of livestock are well documented. Lower levels of 
mycotoxins cause carcinogenic, teratogenetic, hallucinogenic, and 
mutagenic effects in animals. Mycotoxins have been reported from grains, 
oilseeds, nuts, and dehydrated fruit. An estimate of the economic losses 
caused by mycotoxicoses is difficult to determine but it may be 
considerable (Kingsbury 1964, Goldblatt 1969, Patterson et al. 1976, 
Wyllie and Morehouse 1977-1978, Anonymous 1979, Hsieh 1979). 



- 17 - 

CULTIVATED PLANTS 

Some forage and grain crops can cause poisoning and death under 
certain circumstances. For example, oats ( Avena sativa L. ) and corn ( Zea 
mays L.) can accumulate toxic quantities of nitrates. Alfalfa ( Medicago 
sativa L.) , alsike clover ( Trifolium hybridum L.), buckwheat ( Fagopyrum 
esculentum Moench (= F. sagittatum Gi lib. )), and oats can cause 
photosensitization of certain animals. Sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L. ) 
Moench (= S. vulgare Pers. )) can form toxic quantities of nitri le 
glycosides resulting in cyanide poisoning. 

In Canada, there are many valuable crop plants as well as introduced 
weeds in the mustards ( Brassica spp.). Several of these species, 
including rape ( Brassica napus L.), have caused poisoning and death in 
livestock. The mustards contain oils, called isothiocyanates, which are 
poisonous in certain concentrations. Some mustards also cause nitrate 
poisoning. Hay containing sweet-clover ( Mel i lotus spp.) can produce 
poisoning and death in livestock. 



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Dep. Agric. Uep. Bui I. 942. 14 pp. 
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Marsn, u. u.; Clawson, A. B. 1930a. Toxic effects of St. John's-wort 
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Bull. 202. 23 pp. 



- 23 - 

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- 24 - 

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- 25 - 

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- 26 - 

INDEX 



alfalfa/17 

algae, blue green/16 

alsike clover/17 

amarante fausse-blite/6 

amarante hybrid/6 

amarante a racine rouge/6 

Amaranthaceae/6 

amaranth family/6 

Amaran thus/ 6 

Amaranthus" blitoides/ 6 

Amaranthus graecizans (syn.)/6 

Amaranthus hybridus/ 6 

Amaranthus retrot le"xus/ 6 

Amsinkia intermedia / 13 

Amsinkia menziesii (syn.)/13 

arrow-grasses/3 

arrow-grass family/3 

arrow-grass, marsh/4 

arrow-grass, seaside/3 



Asclepi 
Asclepi 
Asclepi 



Asclepi 



adaceae/12 

as/12 

as speciosa/ 12 

as syriaca/ 12 

as verticillata/13 

Me, belle/12 



Asclepi 

ascTepT 

ascle"piade de Syrie/12 

asclgpiade verticil le*e/13 

astragale fondu/9 

astragal e prostre*/9 

Astragalus/ 9 

Astragalus bisulcatus /9 

Astragalus 1entiqinosus/ 9 

Astragalu? miser/ 9 

Avena saTTva/ 1/ 

Barbarea vulgaris /8 

barbaree vulgaire/8 

barberry family/7 

barley, foxtail/16 

bassia a feuilles d'hysope/5 

bassia, five-hooked/5 

bean family/ 9 

beech family/5 

belle ascle*piade/12 

Berber idaceae/7 

bigelovie puante/14 

black cherry/9 

black locust/10 

black nightshade/14 

black oak/5 

bleedinghearts/7 

bleedingheart, western/8 

blue flag iris/4 

blue green algae/16 

bog-laurel/12 






- 27 - 

borage family/ 13 
Boraginaceae/13 
bracken/3 

Brassica kaber var. pinnatifida (syn.)/8 
buckwheat/ 17 
buckwheat family/5 
California rose-bay/12 
camas/4 

camas, death/4 
camas, white/4 
carotte a Moreau/11 
Caryophyllaceae/7 
Centaurea solstitialis/ 14 
centauree du solstice/14 
cerisier de Virginie/9 
cerisier tardif/9 
Chenopodiaceae/5 
cherries/9 
cherry, black/9 
choke cherry, red/9 
Chrysothamnus nauseosus /14 
chene rouge/b 
che*nopode blanc/5 
cuta/11 



Ci 

Cicuta douglasii /11 

Cicuta maculata/11 



n 



cuta virosa/11 



cicutaire du Nord/1 1 

cicutaire pourpre/11 

cigue macule'e/ll 

clajeux/4 

climbing nightshade/13 

clover, alsike/17 

cockle, purple/7 

cocklebur/16 

Colorado rubberweed/15 

common milkweed/12 

Compos itae / 14 

composite family/ 14 

coneflower, cut-leaved/15 

Con i urn macu 1 a turn/ 1 1 

corn/ 1/ 

crowfoot family/7 

Cruciferae/8 

cut-leaved coneflower/15 

Cyanophyta/16 

cypress spurge/10 

Datura stramonium/ 13 

death camas/4 

Delphinium/ 7 

Delphinium bicolor /7 

Delphinium brownTT {syr\.)/7 

Delphinium glaucum /7 

Delphinium menziesii/ 7 

Descurainia pinnata var. brachycarpa /8 



- 28 - 



Dicentra/ 7 

Uicentra cucull aria /8 
Dicentra formosa/ 8~ 
dicentre du Canada/7 
dicentre a capuchon/8 
digitale pourpre/14 
Digitalis purpurea/ 14 
dock, veined/ b 
Dutchman ' s-breeches/8 
eastern whorled milkweed/ 13 
entire-leaved groundsel/15 
Equisetaceae/2 
Equisetum /2 
Equi setum arvense/2 



Equisetum palustre /2 

Ericaceae/72 

eupatoire rugueuse/14 

Eupatorium ruqosum/ 14 

euphorbe cypres/ 10 

euphorbe esule/11 

Euphorbiaceae/10 

Euphorbia /10 

Euphorbia" cyparissias/ 10 

Euphorbia esula /1 l~ 

Fagaceae/5 

Fagopyrum esculentum/ 17 

Fagopyrum sagittatum (syn.)/17 

false hellebore/4 

fern family/3 

fern, sensitive/3 

fiddleneck/13 

field horsetail/2 

figwort family/14 

five-hooked bassia/5 

fougere d'aigle/3 

fougere de l'Ouest, grande/3 

foxglove/14 

foxtail barley/16 

foxtail, yellow/ 16 

Fumariaceae/7 

fumitory family/ 7 

fungi/16 

Glechoma hederacea /13 

goldenrod, velvety/ 1 5 

goosefoot family/5 

grande fougere de TOuest/3 

grass, porcupine/16 

greasewood/6 

green tansy mustard/8 

ground-ivy/13 

groundsels/15 

groundsel, entire-leaved/15 

Guttiferae/11 

hairy vetch/10 

heath family/ 12 



- 29 - 



Helenium/ 15 

Helenium" autumnal e / 15 

Helenium f 1exuosum/ 15 

Helenium nudiflorum (syn.)/15 

hel lebore, talse/4 

hemlock, poison/11 

Hordeum jubatum/ 16 

horsetai Is/2 

horsetail family/2 

horsetail, field/2 

horsetail, marsh/2 

Hymenoxys richardsonii/ 15 

Hypericum perforatum /1 1 

helenie automnale/ lb 

if du Canada/3 

Iridaceae/4 

iris, blue flag/4 

iris family/4 

Iris versicolor /4 

j lmsonweed/ 1 3 

Juncaginaceae/3 

Kalmia/ 12 

kalmia a feuilles d'andromede/12 

kalmia a feuilles etroites/12 

Kalmia angustifolia /12 

Kalmia ponronaT TZ 

Koch i a/5 

Kochia scoparia /5 

Labiatae/ 13 

Lactuca scariola /15 

laitue scariole/15 

lamb's-quarters/5 

lampourde glouteron/16 

larkspurs/7 

larkspur, low/7 

larkspur, tall/7 

laurels/12 

leafy spurge/ 11 

Leguminosae/9 

lettuce, prickly/15 

li erre terrestre/13 

Liliaceae/4 

lily family/4 

locoweeds/10 

locoweed, purple/10 

locust, black/10 

low larkspur/7 



lupi 



n argente*/9 



lupin soyeux/10 
lupines/9 
lupine, silky/10 
lupine, silvery/9 
lupine, small/10 
Lupinus/9 



Lupinus argenteus /9 



- 30 - 



Lupinus pusillus/ 10 

Lupinus sericeus /10 

marsh arrow-grdSS/4 

marsh horsetail/2 

May-apple/7 

Medicago sativa /17 

Meli1otus7 T7 

Menziesia" ferruginea var. glabella/ 12 

milk-vetches/y 

milk-vetch, timber/9 

milk-vetch, two-grooved/ 9 

milkweeds/12 

milkweed, common/ 12 

milkweed, eastern whorled/13 

milkweed family/12 

milkweed, showy/ 12 

millepertuis perfore/11 

minniebush, western/12 

mint family/13 

morel le douce-amere/13 

morelle noire/14 

moutarde des champs/8 

moutarde tanaisie verte/8 

mustards/17 

mustard family/8 

mustard, wild/8 

nielle/7 

nightshades/13 

nightshade, black/14 

nightshade, climbing/13 

nightshade family/13 

northern water-hemlock/ 11 

oaks/5 

oak, black/5 

oak, red/5 

oats/17 

Qnoclea sensibilis/ 3 

onocTeT sensible/J 

Oxytropis /10 

Oxytropis lambertii/ 10 

UxytropVs" sericea /TO 

parsley family/ 1 1 

Phytolacca americana/ 6 

Phytolaccaceae/b 

phytolaque d'Am^rique/6 

pied d'alouette bicolore/7 

pied d'alouette glauque/7 

pigweeds/6 

pigweed, prostrate/6 

pigweed, redroot/6 

pigweed, smooth/6 

pin ponderosa/3 

Pinaceae/3 

pine family/3 

pine, ponderosa/3 



- 31 - 



pink family/7 

Pinus ponderosa /3 

podophyTTe~peTtg/ 7 

Podophyllum peltatum/ 7 

poison hemlock/ 1 1 

poison suckleya/6 

pokeweed/6 

pokeweed family/6 

Polygonaceae/5 

Polypodiaceae/3 

ponderosa pine/3 

porcupine grass/16 

prickly lettuce/15 

prostrate pigweed/6 

Prunus/ 9 

Prunus serotina/ 9 

Prunus Virginian a/ 9 

prele des champs/2 

prele des marais/2 

Pteridium aquilinum /3 

purple cockle// 

purple locoweed/10 

Quercus /5 

Quercus rubra/ 5 

Quercus velutina/ 5 

rabbitbrush, stinking/14 

ragwort, tansy/15 

Ranunculaceae/7 

rape/17 

red choke cherry/9 

red oak/5 

redroot pigweed/6 

Rhododendron/ 12 

rhododendrons/12 

Rhododendron albif 1orum /12 

Rhododendron macrophyTTum/ 12 

Robinia pseudoacacia/ 10 

robinier faux-acacia/ 1 

rocket, yellow/8 

Rosaceae/9 

rose family/9 

rose-bay, California/12 

rose-bay, white/12 

rubberweed, Colorado/15 

Rudbeckia laciniata/ 15 

rudbeckie lacinie*e/15 

rumex vein^/5 

Rumex venosus /5 

Sarcobatus vermiculatus/ 6 

bcrophu lariaceae/ 14 

seaside arrow-grass/3 

Senecio/15 

b>enecio integerrimus /15 

Senecio jacobaea / lb 

sensitive fern/3 



- 32 - 



Setaria glauca/ 16 

sheep- laurel/ 12 

showy mi lkweed/12 

silky lupine/10 

silvery lupine/9 

Sinapis arvensis /8 

small lupine/ 10 

smooth pigweed/6 

snakeroot, white/14 

sneezeweed/15 

sneezeweeds/15 

Solanaceae/13 

Solanum/ 13 

Solanum dulcamara/ 13 

Solanum nigrum/ 14" 

Solidago mollis /15 

sorghum/ 17 

Sorghum bicolor/ 17 

Sorghum vulgare (syn.)/17 

spotted water-hemlock/11 

spurges/10 

spurge, cypress/10 

spurge family/10 

spurge, leafy/11 

squirrel-corn/7 

St. John's-wort/11 

St. John's-wort family/11 

star-thistle, yellow/14 

stinking rabbi tbrush/14 

Stipa spartea var. curtiseta/ 16 

stramoine commune/ IT" 

suckleya, poison/6 

Suckleya suckleyana/ 6 

sweet-clover/ 17 

s^negon jacob^e/15 

tall larkspur/7 

tansy mustard, green/8 

tansy ragwort/15 

Taxaceae/3 

Taxus canadensis/ 3 

timber mi Ik-vetch/ 9 

Tri folium hybridum/ 17 

TriglochTn/ 3 

TriglochTn maritima/ 3 

Triglochin palustris/ 4 

troscart des marais/4 

troscart maritime/3 

two-grooved milk-vetch/9 

Umbelliferae/11 

varaire vert/4 

veined dock/5 

velvety goldenrod/15 

Veratrum viride/ 4 

verge d'or velout^e/15 

vesce velue/10 



- 33 - 



vetch, hairy/10 
Vicia vilTosa/ 10 
water-hem locks/1 1 
water-hemlock, northern/ 11 
water-hemlock, spotted/11 
water-hemlock, western/ 11 
western b1eed1ngheart/8 
western minniebush/12 
western water-hemlock/11 
white camas/4 
white rose-bay/ 12 
white snakeroot/14 
wild mustard/8 
Xanthium strumarium/16 
yellow foxtail/ 16 
yellow rocket/8 
yellow star-thistle/ 14 
yew, Canada/3 
yew family/3 
Zea mays/ 17 
zigadene ve*ne*neux/4 
zigadene e*le*gant/4 
Zygadenus/ 4 
Zygadenus elegans/ 4 
Zygadenus gramineus/ 4 



UBRARV BI6U0THEQUE 
I II 



AGRICULTURE CANADA OTTAWA K1A 0C5 

3 T073 0003 c ll7b 5